SOFI 2019 begins to track a new indicator, FIES, that goes beyond hunger and includes those affected by “moderate” food insecurity. Given the broader scope, this indicator will help make the report more useful for policymakers in reducing food insecurity and malnutrition.
In developing countries, small farmers often cannot access organized markets directly. Instead, they sell to middlemen who resell their output to distant buyers. These middlemen appear to earn large margins, and they appropriate most of the gains from rising consumer prices.